Luniverse Now Supports Arbitrum!

Luniverse now supports Arbiturm on our Node Service!🎉🎉 You can now use the ethereum layer 2 scaling solution, Arbitrum node and APIs on Luniverse.

Additionally, explore the new features updated on Luniverse such as  TxAction Callback SecurityTx Monitoring that allows you to operate your dapps easy and fast!

Luniverse Now Supports Arbitrum Node!

If you are considering blockchain service development using the Arbitrum, if setting up dev environment such as blockchain nodes from scratch and integrating them into your services seems challenging, you can use the Arbitrum node service provided by Luniverse to create blockchain services easy and fast.

Now, the Luniverse multi-chain node service supports the Ethereum Layer 2 scaling solution, Arbitrum. Explore the Arbitrum JSON-RPC API offered by Luniverse!

Move to Arbitrum JSON-RPC

About Arbitrum

Arbitrum, a layer 2 solution, enhances Ethereum smart contracts by improving speed, scalability, and privacy. Developers can seamlessly run unmodified Ethereum Virtual Machine contracts and transactions on this secondary layer while benefiting from Ethereum’s security. This addresses Ethereum’s current smart contract limitations, including inefficiency and high costs, which have hampered user experience. Arbitrum utilizes transaction rollups to batch and execute transactions on a scalable layer 2 sidechain, reducing Ethereum’s computational burden and enabling innovative layer 2-based DApps. Developed by Offchain Labs, led by blockchain experts Ed Felten, Steven Goldfeder, and Harry Kalodner, Arbitrum aims to enhance cryptocurrency capabilities through scalable solutions.

Luniverse Changelog

Luniverse’s new updates – What has changed?

TxAction Callback Security

A security element has been added to the TxAction Callback function provided by Luniverse. Now users can check if the response is the actual response sent by Luniverse. Details can be found by clicking on the link.

Move to TxAction Callback Security

Tx Monitoring

You can monitor your own transactions using the Luniverse console. You can easily check the necessary information by using various filtering values such as period, success, and executed method. Details can be found by clicking on the link.

Move to Tx Monitoring

Luniverse Scan CSV download

Tx data for tokens can be extracted from Luniverse Scan in CSV file format. (If you open the file with Excel or Numbers, different values may appear due to automatic unit conversion. It is most accurate to check by running it in an application that does not convert units, such as Notepad.)

Luniverse Multichain Web3 API Response Field

listTokenMetadataBySymbolslistTokenMetadataByContracts Description, logo, websites, technicalDocs, and launchedAt have been added as API response fields. Now, you can utilize more diverse metadata using the Luniverse Multichain API.

Luniverse dev team is continuously working on improving its platform features for blockchain development. Stay tuned for our upcoming updates!

Lambda256 and Chainlink Labs Establish Channel Partnership To Help Drive Web3 App Development

We’re excited to announce that Lambda256, the blockchain unit of Upbit operator Dunamu, has formed a channel partnership with Chainlink Labs, a developer of the Chainlink Network. This partnership aims to help streamline Web3 application development by providing developers using Luniverse—Lambda256’s hallmark development platform—with access to Chainlink’s proven Web3 services platform. 

How Lambda256 Uses Chainlink To Unlock Web3 Builders

Luniverse is a secure and seamless Web3 development platform that offers builders a user-friendly development environment, including access to necessary APIs and operation tools. From blockchain node services and gas-free development courtesy on the Luniverse sidechain to multi-chain API access for Ethereum and Polygon, Luniverse provides an all-in-one platform for developers to build, test, and deploy their Web3 apps. 

This channel partnership aims to provide Web3 developers and dApps using Luniverse with seamless access to Chainlink oracle services, streamlining their development process and unlocking novel use cases that will drive the adoption of Web3’s application stack. 

“Chainlink services are an integral part of a Web3 developer’s toolkit. It’s how you build novel use cases that have Web2 levels of connectivity. Lambda256 is excited to establish a channel partnership with Chainlink Labs to unlock a new frontier of innovation for all Luniverse developers.”—Jay Park, CEO of Lambda256.  


About Chainlink Labs 

Chainlink Labs is the leading provider of secure and reliable open-source blockchain oracle solutions, enhancing smart contracts by connecting them to a wide range of off-chain data sources and computations, such as asset prices, web APIs, IoT devices, payment systems, and more. Chainlink Labs is dedicated to the development and integration of Chainlink as the standard decentralized oracle framework used by smart contracts across any blockchain.


About Chainlink 

Chainlink is the industry-standard Web3 services platform that has enabled trillions of dollars in transaction volume across DeFi, insurance, gaming, NFTs, and other major industries. As the leading decentralized oracle network, Chainlink enables developers to build feature-rich Web3 applications with seamless access to real-world data and off-chain computation across any blockchain and provides global enterprises with a universal gateway to all blockchains. 

The Chainlink ecosystem features over 1,500 projects that use decentralized oracle networks to seamlessly access services such as decentralized data feeds, a verifiably random number generator, a proven smart contract automation solution, and reliable asset reserve verification. In addition, Chainlink can bridge the gap for Web2 companies trying to enter the Web3 space by offering projects and data providers a universal gateway to all blockchains.


About Lambda256

Lambda256 (CEO Jay Park), established as an independent corporation in March 2019, is the blockchain tech arm of Dunamu(Upbit). Lambda256 developed and operates Luniverse, a cloud-based blockchain infrastructure and Web3 development platform that is paving the way for the commercialization of blockchain technology and the creation of a vibrant ecosystem. Luniverse offers a comprehensive portfolio of blockchain solutions such as tokenization of assets (STO), NFT for brands, and node/API service for the public chains. Aside from Luniverse, Lambda256 also provides NFT design studio ‘CYPHRLY’ and developed travel rule solution ‘VerifyVASP’.


Try Luniverse Node Service for free today! 

Luniverse NOVA X Polygon – 3. User Analysis

In the previous articles, we discussed a brief explanation of Polygon and explored various solutions.

In this article, we will quantify Polygon into numbers to determine its strengths and weaknesses. Additionally, we aim to provide information from the perspectives of developers and general users by objectively comparing and analyzing it with other public chains.

User Analysis

In the first post, we dealt with the background of Polygon’s birth, including Ethereum’s Trilemma. To briefly explain the Trilemma again, it signifies that in the blockchain, Decentralization, Security, and Scalability conflict with each other, making it difficult for a blockchain to perfectly satisfy all three. We will see how Polygon users have changed, having effectively overcome this.

Next, I would like to introduce indicators that indirectly provide insights into the evaluation of the Polygon network based on the statistics of relevant users. I will explain the metrics related to three key users: developers, users, and investors.

Total Contract Creators

As of May 30, 2023: Over 294,042 users [Source: Polygon official website]

The number of contract developers on Polygon was 234,000 as of December 2022, which represents a staggering 637% increase compared to 31,800 in 2021. As of the current date (May 30, 2023), the total number of contract developers has increased by 25% from 234,000 to 294,042, showing a consistent growth trend.

Deployed Smart Contract

As of May 30, 2023: Over 1.24 million [Source: Polygon official website]

[Source: Nansen]

The number of contracts deployed on Polygon has reached a staggering 1.24 million as of May 30, 2023, with the monthly deployment quantity gradually increasing. In May, there were 28.14 million contracts deployed. This is a similar figure to the number deployed in September 2021

  • Trading Volume on Polygon as of May 25, 2021: $6.515 billion In 2021, the cryptocurrency market received significant attention, with the emergence of various cryptocurrencies and a large influx of investors. In this environment, the number of contracts deployed on the Polygon network also increased dramatically. However, as the cryptocurrency market experienced a downturn in 2022, there was a sharp decline in deployment.

  • Trading Volume on Polygon as of May 25, 2023: $328.8 million Even in May 2023, despite the relatively decreased interest in the cryptocurrency market, the number of contracts deployed on the Polygon network continues to increase. This indicates that developers recognize the reliability and excellent usability of the Polygon network and are showing renewed interest and participation, independent of the market downturn in the cryptocurrency industry.

The Number of USERs

  • Unique Addresses Total Count
    A unique address refers to a unique identifier used for users, smart contracts, and other entities on the Polygon chain. Like Ethereum, these addresses are expressed as 40-character hexadecimal strings.
    The total unique addresses count represents the total number of distinct users who have used the blockchain or protocol. This metric increases as new unique addresses are created, allowing us to gauge the user base of the blockchain or protocol.
    Here is the total unique addresses count for the Polygon PoS Chain:
    Total Unique Addresses: 283,672,167 [23.05.31]

[Source: Polygonscan]

As of May 31, 2023, there were approximately 280 million users who have cumulatively used the Polygon PoS Chain. Additionally, the recent rate of increase in address count is similar to the blockchain boom period of May to July 2021.

  • Daily Active Addresses (DAA) [as of May 31, 2023]

    Daily active addresses include both PoS Chain addresses and ERC-20 addresses.

    For PoS Chain addresses, it refers to the total number of externally owned accounts (EOA) that have conducted transactions on the PoS network. On the other hand, ERC-20 addresses represent the total number of addresses involved in ERC-20 token transactions on the network, including internal addresses resulting from internal transactions during smart contract execution.

    • The term “internal address” is not an official term but is adopted from the concept of internal transactions. Leading blockchain data analysis platform NANSEN also uses the term “internal address” when explaining active addresses.

    The traditional concepts of daily active users (DAU) and monthly active users (MAU) in the web2 context are expressed as daily active addresses (DAA) in web3, which represents the number of unique users involved.

    • Daily Active Polygon PoS Chain Addresses

[Source: Polygonscan]

Daily Active Polygon PoS Chain Addresses: 460,487 [as of May 31, 2023]

During May, the average daily active PoS Chain addresses on Polygon was around 421,524. Compared to the average from May 2022 (302,166), this represents a 39.5% increase.

The daily active addresses for both ERC-20 and PoS Chain have shown significant growth compared to a year ago, indicating a rising trend of more users and developers choosing the Polygon network.

    • Daily Active ERC-20 Addresses

    • [Source: Polygonscan]

      Daily Active ERC-20 Addresses: 745,251 [as of May 31, 2023]

      During May, the average daily active ERC-20 addresses on Polygon was around 769,455, with a peak of 2,389,838 addresses on a single day. This represents a threefold increase compared to the average daily active addresses in May 2022 (252,965).

  • New Addresses New addresses refer to addresses where transactions occur for the first time, indicating new inflows to the chain. This allows us to track recent interest or evaluation of the chain.


    In May 2023, the number of new addresses on Polygon increased by an average of 1.045 million, which is approximately 15 times higher compared to the 67,000 new addresses in May 2022.

UAW (Unique Active Wallets) is a metric used by the platform “DappRadar,” which tracks dApps. It represents the number of unique wallet addresses that interact with a specific dApp’s smart contracts. To be calculated in DappRadar’s UAW, users need to perform blockchain transactions, allowing us to identify the number of users participating in a particular dApp.

By using UAW, we can understand user activity and compare the interest and success of specific dApps with others. It can serve as a criterion for selecting the most actively interacting dApp.

Active Wallets: 1.64 MILLION (as of April 8, 2023) [ Source: Polygon (Labs) Twitter ]

[Source: Polygon (Labs) Twitter]

  • Network Transaction Volume (On-Chain Transaction Volume)

    On-chain transaction volume is a metric that represents the actual quantity of transactions occurring on a blockchain network. It is a reliable and transparent indicator of transaction activity recorded and verified by participants in the blockchain network.

    Understanding on-chain transaction volume is crucial for assessing the actual usage and adoption of specific cryptocurrencies or blockchain projects. Analyzing on-chain transaction volume allows us to assess the liquidity and transaction activity information of a particular chain, as well as understand development trends.

    By monitoring on-chain transaction volume, we can obtain important information about the actual usage and transaction activity of cryptocurrencies. This helps investors, developers, and others make better decisions based on real blockchain data.

    Looking at the average over the past six months, there were approximately 8.8 million transactions per month. While Polygon competed with Binance Smart Chain for the top spot in February this year, it eventually conceded the first place to BNB and is currently ranked second in terms of network transaction volume.

    • ERC-20 (Average Monthly) Transaction Count

The ERC-20 transaction count refers to the total number of transactions that occurred on the network, including internal transfers. It has been declining over the past two months, with 2.32 million transactions recorded in May.

  • PoS (Average Monthly) Transaction Count

The PoS transaction count represents the number of transactions that occurred on the PoS network, including transactions from external owned accounts (EOAs). In May 2023, the PoS transaction count reached 2.25 million, showing an increase compared to ERC-20.

  • Trading Volume (Exchange Trading Volume)

    On Binance, an average of 100 million coins is traded daily.

    More than 60% of Binance’s official trading volume occurs off-chain.

    Therefore, it is advisable to consider both on-chain network transaction counts and off-chain trading volumes.

Polygon Transactions by Entity

[Source: Nansen]

Polygon transactions are mainly dominated by Chainlink.

Below are three Chainlink services that Polygon primarily utilizes.

  1. Chainlink Data Feeds
  2. Chainlink Verifiable Randomness Function
  3. Chainlink API Calls

Chainlink provides an oracle network that allows smart contracts to access real-world data outside the blockchain. In Polygon, these services are used as a means to access external data within the network, enabling interaction and offering various functionalities between Polygon and Chainlink.


In this article, we compared the three aspects of decentralization, security, and scalability of Polygon by using the keywords of the trilemma.

First, in terms of decentralization, Polygon demonstrates excellent structural decentralization, excluding the validator count, but ultimately relies heavily on Ethereum. However, it is difficult to evaluate the political decentralization positively, except for the distribution of validators. Metrics such as Gini coefficient, Nakamoto coefficient, and Shannon entropy all have indicators that make it difficult to classify them as decentralized. However, through a governance structure called PIP, Polygon maintains stable logical centralization. Overall, it is challenging to consider Polygon as fully decentralized on its own, but it compensates for this by leveraging Ethereum’s decentralization, resulting in a reasonably decentralized system.

Moving on to security, Polygon is considered to have a high level of fault tolerance, resistance to attacks, and resistance to collusion, making it highly secure.

However, in terms of scalability, the actual TPS (Transactions Per Second) of Polygon averages around 30 TPS, which is very fast and places it second among all blockchains. However, when comparing the theoretical (maximum) TPS of 7,000 to VisaCard’s 24,000 TPS, there is still room for improvement in order to achieve Polygon’s vision of mass adoption. Additionally, while the block creation speed is fast at 2.3 seconds, the finality time of approximately 9 minutes can be considered relatively slow compared to chains like NEAR or Solana. While there have been significant improvements in terms of speed and gas fees compared to Ethereum, it is still challenging to rate Polygon highly compared to other new mainnets.

From the perspective of user adoption, the influx of actual utilization purposes for Polygon is increasing. Polygon has the second highest number of contract deployments among all mainnets, and its growth rate is also the highest. Although the price of Polygon is declining due to the current market downturn, the number of contract deployments is increasing at a rate similar to the bullish market in May 2021. In this regard, there is a positive influx into Polygon’s internal ecosystem, indicating that its foundation is gradually strengthening.

Polygon serves as an L2 scaling solution for Ethereum and is one of the mainnets that is considered first in actual product development. It is expected to maintain this position for a while based on its high compatibility with Ethereum. However, in order to be utilized by real-world companies, there is a need for improvement in terms of scalability, and the current political decentralization metric also shows a relatively low value. If these aspects are progressively improved, a positive future for Polygon can be expected.

Finally, to conclude the post, I will summarize the content we learned today into an easy-to-view three-line summary.

Thank you.

What is NFTfi? (ERC-4907)

Danksharding is an improved version of Ethereum’s sharding technology, which is one of the techniques that greatly increase transaction capacity and reduce gas fees in Ethreum 2.0 upgrade.

To help you understand what Danksharding is, let’s first take a look at Ethereum’s scalability strategy, which aims to increase network performance and ensure scalability.

Continue reading

What is Danksharding? – #2 Sharding vs. Danksharding

Danksharding is an improved version of Ethereum’s sharding technology, which is one of the techniques that greatly increase transaction capacity and reduce gas fees in Ethreum 2.0 upgrade.

To help you understand what Danksharding is, let’s first take a look at Ethereum’s scalability strategy, which aims to increase network performance and ensure scalability.

Continue reading

What is Danksharding? – #1 Ethereum Scalability Roadmap in detail

Danksharding is an improved version of Ethereum’s sharding technology, which is one of the techniques that greatly increase transaction capacity and reduce gas fees in Ethreum 2.0 upgrade.

To help you understand what Danksharding is, let’s first take a look at Ethereum’s scalability strategy, which aims to increase network performance and ensure scalability.

Continue reading

Luniverse: Join us at Consensus 2023 for Exclusive Promotions and Benefits!

The world’s largest annual blockchain technology conference, Consensus 2023, is just around the corner. Consensus 2023 is a conference organized by Coindesk, bringing together the most prominent leaders, entrepreneurs, developers, and investors from the blockchain and cryptocurrency industry. This year’s event will take place in Austin, Texas from April 26-28, 2023, and Luniverse will be one of the exhibitors at the conference!

Luniverse at Consensus 2023

During the conference, Luniverse will showcase its blockchain solutions and demonstrate how they can help businesses achieve their goals. Visitors to Consensus 2023 can expect an exclusive experience at Luniverse’s booth, located at Booth #1300, near the main stage.

(Click the map to view the booth location)

Exclusive Benefits for the Visitors

The company has prepared an exciting giveaway promotion for the visitors, including a free gift and a free trial/promotion for Luniverse blockchain services and USDC giveaway. Visit Lambda256’s booth to get their free gifts and learn more about Luniverse’s blockchain solutions!

1. Free Gift Giveaway for Visitors 

Come to the Luniverse booth and get a chance to win a free gift. All you need to do is leave your namecard or submit your name/email below to claim your prize. Don’t miss out on this exciting opportunity to receive a free gift from Luniverse!

2. Follow us on Twitter/Discord 

Win more free gifts at our booth! Simply follow us on our official Twitter and Discord community. Click the icon to access each account and start following us to get more gifts. Good luck!

3. Luniverse NOVA Trial – USDC giveaway

Sign up Luniverse NOVA and get USDC and membership NFT rewards in 3 mins! Experience the power of Luniverse blockchain services today for free. 

Announcing the Official Launch of Luniverse Nova – Get Early Bird Benefits Now!


Introducing Luniverse NOVA – the most reliable web3 development platform supporting public chains like Polygon and Ethereum!

To celebrate the launch of Luniverse’s public chain expansion support version, we are hosting a special event for our community. Experience the new features of the NOVA version and get a chance to receive USDC and exclusive NFTs only for early bird users.

It’s simple to participate – just sign up for a Luniverse console account and create a node! Don’t miss out on this exciting opportunity.  Join now and be a part of the future with Luniverse NOVA!


Sign up Luniverse NOVA and create node to win USDC in 3 mins! Experience the new version of Luniverse now. 

  • Event Period: March 31st – June 30th
  • How to participate
    • Sign up – Log in to the console and go to “My Page – Promotion”
    • Enter the exclusive promotion code 
  • Promotion Code: qqiv-fxho-9bzf-1eaf
  • Prizes: Create Node to be eligible for winning 1st-3rd place, Sign up for 5 USDC
    • 1st place – 1000 USDC (1 winner)
    • 2nd place – 500 USDC (2 winners)
    • 3rd place – 100 USDC (5 winners)
    • All participants who entered the promotion code – 5 USDC (500 winners)
    • The reward will be distributed to the winner’s wallet address within 4 weeks after the promotion period


Get early bird membership NFT for Luniverse NOVA Discount! We are giving away the exclusive membership NFT during the first 3 months of launch. 

  • Event Period: March 31st – June 30th
  • How to Participate
    • Sign up for the console and enter the promotion code (along with your METAMASK wallet address)
  • Promotion Code: qcqo-fnpq-h2uk-6x8e
  • Reward (for 500 winners)
    • Lunie NFT, which grants future NOVA discount coupons
      • Early access when Nova Polygon version is launched(TBA)
      • Discounts on future Nova product usage fees (distributed in coupon form – announcement planned for April)
      • Early access to future Luniverse marketing campaigns
    • Airdrop schedule: Airdrops will be made in May!


STEP 1. Sign up for Luniverse Console, and click [My page-Promotion] on the right top of the console. 

STEP 2. Fill out the 16 digit promotion code (promotion 1 – 000000/ promotion 2 – 0000000 ) in the box 

STEP 3. Fill out your wallet address (the wallet should support Polygon network) and checkbox of the promotion privacy policy. Click [Submit] to complete the promotion. 


STEP 1. Click [Nodes] on the left menu bar. 

STEP 2. Click [+Create Node] button. 

STEP 3. Select the blockchain network for your development environment. 

STEP 4. Fill out the information and click [Create]. 

STEP 5. You will see [Running] on the Nodes page. Congratulations! You’ve successfully created your first node on Luniverse NOVA. 

📍 Event Guideline

  • Limit one (1) entry per person during the Promotion Period. Duplicate entries by a single participant will be disqualified.
  • To be eligible, participant must provide all information requested on the entry form. Participants who submitted invalid information won’t be eligible for the event promotion.
  • If you have any questions related to the event, please feel free to contact us through the Luniverse Discord Community or via email at
  •  Promotion Privacy Policy

If you have any question regarding the promotion or product, join us on Discord and let us know!

Tech Talk: Understanding AA (Account Abstraction) and ERC-4337


At the ETHDenver 2023 event held earlier this month in the United States, a new Ethereum update was unveiled. Among the updates, the ERC-4337 standard for Account Abstraction received much attention, as it is expected to overcome the limitations of the existing Ethereum account system and enable convenient and scalable feature implementations.

In this post, we will explore what Account Abstraction is and how it can be utilized for various use cases in the future.

Why did AA (Account Abstraction) emerge?

AA (Account Abstraction) is a technology that abstracts the concept of accounts in Ethereum by unifying it into a single idea at the higher layer of the protocol to overcome the functional constraints imposed by the type of account. To understand the motivation of AA, we need to know the characteristics of “accounts” in the Ethereum protocol first.

“Account” is a concept used to identify entities that trade assets and perform smart contracts in the Ethereum protocol. Accounts are classified into EOA(Externally Owned Accounts) or CA(Contract Accounts). EOA is a type of user account that can sign and execute transactions with a private key that controls the account’s address. Therefore, the account can send its assets to other EOAs or call smart contracts. We usually manage accounts through wallet applications like MetaMask to hold assets (i.e., cryptocurrencies or NFTs), and these are all EOAs. On the other hand, CA is an account assigned to smart contracts deployed on the blockchain. Therefore, it is mainly used to distinguish a specific smart contract. Since CA does not have a bound private key, it cannot sign or issue transactions independently. It can only do on-chain execution of embedded codes triggered by receiving transactions issued by other EOAs or by being called from other contracts. In summary, there have been constraints for each type of account; EOA can create and execute transactions but cannot execute on-chain code by itself, while CA can execute embedded on-chain code but cannot create transactions by itself.

account abstraction_image

These constraints by each account’s original function have caused a lot of inconvenience for users. For CA, it was impossible to create a new transaction or deploy a contract (via deploying transaction). Therefore, a separate transaction processing through EOA was always required, which even required paying double the gas fee.

What about EOA? The secure storage of private keys required to use EOA has been identified as one of the biggest obstacle for the mass adoption of blockchain. Reports have shown that about 20% of Bitcoin assets got abandoned due to the loss of private keys by EOA owners, indicating that managing private keys is very cumbersome. Additionally, when the transaction from EOA requires any specific business logic, such as the limitation of transfer amount or destination allowlisting/blocklisting, it was impossible to implement them as on-chain functionalities. Therefore, supplementing this with an of—chain system was essential, which required much effort to implement trustworthy wallets or payment services.

AA is a concept that has emerged to solve these problems. By abstracting accounts and implementing them as smart contracts, AA eliminates all the constraints mentioned above and makes it possible to execute embedded on-chain functions and issue transactions. Thus, implementing AA aims to minimize the inconvenience of account management and increase the scalability of Ethereum applications.

Basic Processing Structure of AA by ERC-4337

Although AA was first proposed in EIP-2938, it was not adopted because it involved modifications of the Ethereum protocol. Nevertheless, when EIP-4337 was proposed later, it eventually became the stand ERC-4337. Unlike EIP-2938, it did not require any modifications to the Ethereum consensus, and instead, it used an “account contract” to enable the abstraction of EOA and CA on the application layer. This implementation was possible because the account contract acted as the intermediary layer between the application layer and the Ethereum blockchain, allowing the abstraction of account types without requiring changes to the underlying consensus protocol.

Basic Idea: Introducing a concept of User Operation, a pseudo-transaction.

ERC-4337 provides the account abstraction through a new layer that resembles the protocol processing that occurs in Ethereum’s consensus layer. To explain it, ERC-4337 achieved the idea of an integrated account by implementing a pseudo-transaction-processing mechanism on the application layer, which functions like a consensus layer; nodes gather transactions from accounts into their mempool and suggest a block containing the high-fee transactions. In the abstract layer, a new actor called “Bundler” appears instead of the node. Anyone in the Ethereum network can participate as a Bundler, reflecting Ethereum’s philosophy of pursuing decentralized transaction processing. In the new layer, users create “User Operations” that contain valid signatures instead of transactions, and transmit them through a specific RPC endpoint. User Operations are composed of data structures such as sender, to, calldata, maxFeePerGas, masPriorityFee, signature, and nonce, just like transactions.

senderaddressThe account that created the User Operation (This is a deterministic account contract address; subsequent verification and execution of User Operations are requested through this address.)
nonceuint256anti-replay parameter; also used as a salt for initial account creation
initCodebytesinitCode for account creation, which is used to create a new account if it doesn’t exist
callDatabytesExecution data used in the main execution call
callGasLimituint256Amount of gas allocated for the main execution call
verificationGasLimituint256Amount of gas allocated for verification
preVerificationGasuint256Amount of gas to be paid as compensation to the bundler who processed pre-verification execution and callData
maxFeePerGasuint256 max_fee_per_gas
maxPriorityFeePerGasuint256 max_priority_fee_per_gas
paymasterAddressPaymaster address that pays the transaction fee (If the address is 0, the fee is paid directly)
paymasterDatabytesAdditional data to be sent to the paymaster
signaturebytesData transmitted to the account along with the nonce during the verification step

Bundlers collect the User Operations in their User Operation Mempool and bundle the high-fee User Operations into a Bundle Transaction. Then, it passes the Bundle Transaction to the EntryPoint contract by calling its functions so that it can verify and process it.

User Operation Processing on EntryPoint Contract

Now we need rules to verify and execute User Operations. The EntryPoint contract is a smart contract that implements common logic for verifying and processing User Operations. It exists as a standard singleton contract throughout the entire Ethereum network because of its reliability. Its reliability is critical because it includes the standard process of AAs. The EntryPoint contract acts as a protocol for AA to handle the things that happen at the consensus layer, like transaction validation and block generation. The only difference is that it is implemented as a programmable application, a smart contract. Among the various interfaces supported by the EntryPoint contract, the simulateValidation(UserOperation upserOp) and handleOps(UserOperation[] ops, address beneficiary) functions are core functions for User Operation processing.

  • The simulateValidation function is called when a Bundler wants to verify the signature and the possibility of paying fee for the User Operations collected in the Mempool. This is very similar to how a node verifies the nonce, content, and signature of a transaction according to the protocol. Bundler can minimize unnecessary gas consumption caused by failures due to incorrectly requested User Operations through this verification.
  • Once the verification is complete, the User Operations are bundled into a Bundle Transaction and passed to the EntryPoint through the handleOps function. Subsequently, final verification and execution are completed through the two important loops within the EntryPoint, a verification loop and an execution loop.

Processing delegation to the account contract

Most parts of the two loops mentioned above are processed by the account contract of the User Operation’s sender, not by the EntryPoint contract itself. In other words, the EntryPoint contract acts as a proxy that receives and processes Bundle Transactions at the front-end. Then, the actual execution of the User Operation is carried out by invoking the implementation of the account contract.

  • In the verification loop, the User Operation is passed to the validateUserOp(UserOperation userOp, bytes32 userOpHash, uint256 missingAccountFunds) function implemented in the account contract, where it is verified according to the defined logic.
  • In the execution loop, the account contract is called through the calldata included in the User Operation, and various custom functions are executed based on the implementation of the account contract.

Finally, any remaining gas from the pre-paid gas is refunded, and the processing of the User Operation is completed. If you have followed so far, you should now have an understanding of how the concept of ‘accounts’ in ERC-4337 has been extended to allow the creation of transactions (User Operations) and execution of on-chain logic.


Extension: Aggregator and Paymaster

In addition to the primary account abstraction process, ERC-4337 includes several extension concepts for the convenience of implementation. These are the Aggregator contract  and the Paymaster contract. In the case of these two extension concepts, they can be optionally used by accounts and users during AA processing.

Aggregate Signature and Aggregator

The first extension concept, Aggregator, is an external helper contract that the account contract trusts, providing “Aggregate Signature verification” functionality to the EntryPoint contract and the account contract for the convenience of implementation. As we reviewed the basic process earlier, the Bundler called the simulateValidation function of the EntryPoint for every single User Operation to verify its validity. Then, EntryPoint is also remembered to perform the validateUserOp function on the account contract repeatedly. Although this is a very intuitive way of verification, it may seem inefficient since they are always bundled. The concept to improve this is the Aggregate Signature.

Aggregate Signature is a technique that uses signature techniques such as BLS to construct and verify a single signature structure by bundling multiple messages signed with individual keys. The Aggregator refers to a contract that helps verify the signature at the Bundle level instead of the individual User Operation level by generating an AggregateSignature for multiple User Operations and verifying the generated signature again. The contract must provide the aggregateSignature(UserOperation[] ops) and validateSignature(UserOperation[] ops, bytes signature) functions and can be used by account contracts deemed safe in their implementation. To do this, the account contract should return the address of allowed Aggregator contract from the getAggregator() function call.

EntryPoint can interact with Aggregator as follows:

  • First, if the account is using Aggregator, the EntryPoint contract returns the ValidationResultWithAggregator object instead of the ValidationResult object when simulateValidation function is called by the Bundler.
  • Bundler firstly checks whether the account is using Aggregator or not, then performs signature verification during the subsequent verification process. In Aggregator case, it calls the handleAggregatedOps function of EntryPoint instead of the handleOps function to delegate the signature verification to the Aggregator instead of the account contract.


If you have ever operated or used a blockchain-based application, you may have experienced the inconvenience of transaction fee processing. For example, when trying to use an application based on a specific ERC20 token in the Ethereum environment and issuing a transaction from EOA, you have to purchase and charge Ethereum separately for the gas fees for transaction processing. Users had to endure such inconvenience because transaction processing fees were only paid with the Native token in EVM-based chains.

The Paymaster contract, the second extension concept of ERC-4337, is a custom payment agency contract that allows DApp providers to pay gas fees for those using their services or process fees with ERC20 tokens. Applications based on AA can implement flexible and scalable services by utilizing the Paymaster contract.

The Paymaster contract interacts with EntryPoint as follows:

  • If the paymaster field exists in the User Operation structure, this request is considered as an operation that must be processed through a specific Paymaster. At the point where the validationOp of the account contract is performed in the validation loop of the EntryPoint, the verification of this request is partially delegated to the address of this field. The function called at this time in the Paymaster is validatePaymasterOp(UserOperation op), which corresponds to the standard spec.
  • The Paymaster contract checks the account that requested payment first and then verifies balances to return a decision if it pays for the account or not. Accordingly, after the execution loop ends, the EntryPoint contract calls the postOp(PostOpMode mode, bytes calldata context, uint256 actualGasCost) function of this Paymaster contract to request payment of the fee.


Then, what can we do with AA?

To summarize what we have looked at so far, using AA, we can now implement the following new scenarios.

  • By defining an account as a contract, we can issue transactions without the management of private keys.
  • By defining an account as a contract, we can define and execute custom on-chain code within the account.
  • With the account contract, general smart contracts can issue transactions now. This allows the implementation of features such as batch processing transactions or atomic actions, which can save fees.
  • We can use Paymaster functionality to delegate transaction fees.

Ultimately, we hope that these changes will improve the usability for users, leading to the expansion of the Web3 ecosystem. With the elimination of the constraints of account-based implementation, on-chain implementation of applications with various scenarios becomes possible, such as:

  • Multi-sig functionality requiring signatures from a specific number of people for token transfers, or account recovery using this functionality.
  • Asset transfer or transaction creation functionality using multi-factor authentication.
  • Periods of fee-free services using Paymaster, processing gas fees through payment with tangible values, and transaction processing systems based on specific ERC20 tokens.
  • Various account access restriction functionalities, such as allowing/blocking accounts that can send tokens from my account, specifying transfer limits, or limiting token movement for a certain period.

Despite the downturn in the crypto market, various Web3 products are being released for the population of blockchain. Support for AA on the Ethereum mainnet is expected to be a great opportunity for the development of the Web3 market in terms of both usability improvement and scalability for applications. Especially wallet services that have not been attractive to Web2 users due to usability issues are expected to expand through the utilization of AA, supporting various payment methods, social account recovery, and account authentication using Web2 infrastructure.


In this post, we have summarized the recently implemented AA(Account Abstraction) function, what kind of technology it is, and what changes it will bring about. The Luniverse team, which is implementing node services and various APIs for public chains, is also quickly reviewing related technologies to provide new developer tools and various use cases with the commercialization of AA. The word “abstraction” may sound ambiguous and new, but it will become a technology that can greatly expand the boundaries of the blockchain.

Try out Luniverse Testnet!

The Luniverse Testnet is a free trial service for Web3 builders, available in the Luniverse Console. You can take advantage of a 60-day free trial to upload or test your Dapp for free!

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